Frequently Asked Questions

Mines Rescue & Safety

Safety Lamps

Mine Gases

Mine Ventilation

Mine Sample Testing Laboratory

What is the purpose of rescue and recovery? Top
To find out and rescue the miners trapped inside a mine.
To determine the cause of a fire eruption and try to extinguish it.
To make a mine operational again and to correct the ventilation.
 
What is the minimum and maximum number of a rescue team members? Top
The minimum number of team members of a rescue team is 3 and maximum number is 5.
 
What are the responsibilities of a rescue captain? Top
To inform the higher authorities immediately after getting information of an emergency,
To direct the rescue team to load the emergency appparatus,
To guide the rescue team inside the mine,
To check the roof of mine and reduction of oxygen,
To establish a ventilation base.
 
How many kinds of rescue apparatus are there? Top
There are two kinds of rescue apparatus, (1) close circuit and (2) open circuit apparatus.
 
What are the four names of breathing apparatus? What is their weight and duration? Top
1. BG-174 Weight 15 kg Time 4 hours
2. BG-04 Weight 14 kg Time 4 hours
3. Self-Rescuer Weight 980 kg Time 30 minutes
4. Fresh Air Line Length 25-30 Ft No time bounding.
 
What is the total number of valves of breathing apparatus BG-174? Top
The total number of valves of breathing apparatus BG-174 is 7.
 
What is the total number of valves of breathing apparatus BG-04? Top
The total number of valves of breathing apparatus BG-04 is 7.
 
What is the volume of breathing apparatus BG-04’s breathing bag? Top
The volume of the breathing bag is 5.5 liters.
 
What is the pressure and volume of oxygen cylinder of breathing apparatus BG-04? Top
The volume of the cylinder is 2 litres and pressure is 200 bar.
 
What is the name of the chemical that is used in CO2 absorber? Top
The name of chemical used in CO2 absorber is potassium hydroxide + sodium hydroxide.
 
What is the formula and weight of alkali cartridge and soda lime? Top
Formula of Alkali Cartridge is NAOH 50% + KOH 50%
Formula of Soda Lime is NAOH 42.50% + CAOH 42.50% + MOISTURE 15%
Weight is 2.9 kg  -  2.8 kg
 
What is the minimum and maximum quantity of oxygen that is delivered from BG-04? Top
Oxygen 1.5 to 1.9 litter per minutes.
 
What is the weight, duration and names of parts of a self rescuer? Top
Weight of self rescuer is 980 kg and time is 30 minutes.
Parts are 1. Dust Filter,   2. Drying Agent,   3. Hopeclite
 
What is function of oil flame safety lamp? Top
It detects the methane and deficiency of Oxygen in mine atmosphere.
 
Describe the parts of an oil flame safety lamp. Top
1. Found Assembly,   2. Globe Assembly,   3. Bonut Assembly
 
What is the purpose of grates of oil flame safety lamp? Top
To absorb heat and to stop a flame.
 
Which fuel is used in oil flame safety lamp? Top
Kilsa oil ( 1 part coconut oil and 3 parts kerosene oil).
 
What are the names of parts of multi-gas detector lamp box? Top
1. Detector Pump, 2. Detector Tube
 
How the pump of multi-gas detector is checked? Top
Closed tube is attached and pump is pressed.
 
How is the gas from detector tubes checked? Top
Both heads of a tube are torned off, attached to pump and pressed.
 
Describe the volume and pressure of cylinder installed in pulmotor. Top
The volume of the cylinder attached to Pull Motor is 2.5 litres and pressure 200 bar.
 
Describe the names of gases found inside a mine. Top
Carbon monoxide (CO), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Oxygen (O2), Nitrogen (N2), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Methane (CH4), Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2).
 
What are the gases found inside a mine are called in mining terminology? Top
CO is called white damp, CO2 is called black damp, CH4 is called fire damp, N2O is called laughter damp and H2S is called sting damp.
 
What kinds of gases are found in coal mines & salt mines? Top
There are two kinds of gases found in coal mines & salt mines: 1. Wanted Gases, 2. Unwanted Gases.
 
Which gases are wanted in coal & salt mines? Top
Oxygen & Nitrogen are wanted gases.
 
Which gases are unwanted or fatal in coal & salt mines? Top
Methane, Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Hydrogen Sulphide and Sulphur Dioxide are unwanted or fatal gases.
 
Describe the names of poisonous and suffocating gases. Top
suffocating gas (CO2) and poisonous gas (CO)
 
What is the importance of Nitrogen in the mine atmosphere? Top
Nitrogen is an inert gas, controls the combustion process and its permissible limit is 78.11% in mines.
 
What is the importance of Oxygen (O2) in the mine atmosphere? Top
Oxygen is essential for life and combustion process. Its permissible limit is not less than 19.5% in mines.
 
How does the deficiency of Oxygen affect the health of mine workers? Top
If the concentration of oxygen decreases from the permissible limit, the rate of breathing starts increasing and acute deficiency results in death of mine workers.
 
How does the methane (CH4) affect the life of mine workers? Top
It is not poisonous but a flammable gas. Its explosive range is 5% to 14%.
 
How does the carbon monoxides (CO) affect the human life? Top
It is poisonous and affects the central nervous system of human being. Its permissible limit is 0.01%.
 
How does the carbon dioxide (CO2) affect the human life? Top
If its concentration in the mine atmosphere increases from its permissible limit (0.5%), the rate of breathing increases.
 
What affects of increased CO2 are produced on a human being? Top
The breathing rate of a human being increases.
 
What effects are produced on a human being if quantity of CO2 is decreased? Top
Breathing rate is increased and the face gets bluish.
 
What is the method of checking CO2? Top
With the help of digital monitor and multi gas detector.
 
How does the Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) affect the human life? Top
It is poisonous gas and it also affects the central nervous system of the human being. Its permissible limit is 0.001%.
 
How does the Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) affect the human life? Top
It is a poisonous gas and affects the breathing system. Its permissible limit is 0.0005%.
 
How does the Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) affect the human being? Top
It is poisonous gas and affects the breathing system. Its permissible limit is 0.0005%.
 
What are the purposes of Mine Ventilation? Top
To maintain the stream of fresh air and deliver fresh air to the working face, exclude the poisonous gases, reduce the temperature and humidity and throw away the air born dust.
 
What are the types of Mine Ventilation? Top
Natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation.
 
Describe the methods of mechanical ventilation. Top
With the help of forcing fan and exhaust fan.
 
Why the regulators are installed to correct the air flow system? Top
Regulators are installed to maintain the quantity of air for the persons working in a mine
 
Why air-crossing is done? Top
Air-crossing is done to improve the air-circuit so that the warm air of low level and high l.evel don’t get mixed up
 
What is meant by low-level and high-level? Top
The air enters from low-level and exits from high level.
 
Describe the method of ascertaining the quantity of air. Top
To find out the quantity of air, the horizontal section of mine area is multiplied with the speed of the air.
 
How the area of a mine is determined? Top
(( Floor + Roof ) / 2 ) X Hight
 
What is meant by natural ventilation? Top
Natural ventilation means the entrance of air from low-level and its exit from high level naturally.
 
Why the doors are installed inside a mine? Top
Doors are installed to control the flow of air inside a mine.
 
What is meant by FAB? Top
FAB means fresh air base or fresh air channel.
 
What are causes of fire eruption inside a mine? Top
Increased quantity of methane, coal dust, coal oxidation and electric short circuit.
 
How doses coal dust affect the health of mine workers? Top
The coal dust causes pneumoconiosis.
 
What is the purpose of Mines Sample Testing Laboratory, Khushab? Top
To detect and evaluate the health hazards in coal & salt mines, for comfortable working environment, safety, health and welfare of mine workers.
 
What kinds of health hazards are detected and evaluated in the coal mines? Top
The health hazards of coal mines are as:
  • Noxious Gases
  • Coal Dust
  • Poor Illumination
  • Noise
  • Humidity & Heat Stress
  • Unsafe drinking water
 
How does the poor illumination affect the health of mine workers? Top
Poor illumination causes Nystagmus. Illumination should be upto 5 Lux.
 
What are the effects of the humidity & heat stress for the human life? Top
High concentration of humidity and heat causes dehydration, muscular cramps and heat stroke.
 
How does high level of noise affect the human activity? Top
High level of noise disturbs the communication hence result in accidents. It also cause hypertension in the workers. Constant exposure to high level of noise causes deafness. The permissible limit is 80 dB.
 
What parameters are noted for safe drinking water? Top
Microscopic studies are performed for the detection of bacterial contamination and pH and hardness is also measured.