Mining techniques are divided into two common excavation types: surface mining and underground mining. Surface mining is much more common and used in the excavation of minerals like Argillaceous Clay, Bauxite, Brine, China Clay, Celestite, Dolomite, Fire Clay, Fuller Earth, Gravel, Gypsum, Laterite, Lime Stone, Marble, Mill Stone, Ocher, Ordinary Sand, Sand Stone, Silica Sand including Oil and Gas. On the other hand, normally Coal and Rock Salt are excavated through underground mining. While minerals like Bentonite and Iron Ore are mined by both surface and underground methods.
Surface mining is done by removing surface vegetation, dirt, and if necessary, layers of bedrock in order to reach buried ore deposits. Techniques of surface mining include; Open-pit mining which consists of recovery of materials from an open pit in the ground, quarrying or gathering building materials from an open pit mine, strip mining which consists of stripping surface layers off to reveal ore/seams underneath, and mountaintop removal which involves taking the top of a mountain off to reach different deposits at depth.
Underground mining consists of digging tunnels or shafts into the earth to reach buried ore/mineral deposits. Ore, for processing, and waste rock, for disposal, are brought to the surface through the tunnels and shafts. Mining in hard and soft rock formations require different techniques.
The mining environment especially underground mining is hazardous and prone to several disasters including fire, roof collapse, inundation, gas leakage, gas explosions etc. It not only puts the life of the miners in risk but also causes extensive damage to the equipment, valuable resources and the environment. Every year, lot of precious lives and resources are lost in disasters in mines. To mitigate these disasters, the following two sections are working over there: